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Declaration of Helsinki

The World Medicine Association formed in 1945 to represent physicians worldwide. It is a non political, non governmental which addresses non clinical medical issues (such as ethics and education).

The World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki was first written in 1964. It is: "..a statement of ethical principles to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects." It is concerned with both clinical trials and non-therapeutic research and is regularly updated, most recently in Edinburgh 2000.

The World Medical Association has prepared the following recommendations as a guide to every physician in biomedical research involving human subjects.

I. Basic Principles

  1. Biomedical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles and should be based on adequately performed laboratory and animal experimentation and on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature.
  2. The design and performance of each experimental procedure involving human subjects should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol which should be transmitted for consideration, comment and guidance to a specially appointed committee is in conformity with the laws and regulations of the country in which the research experiment is performed.
  3. Biomedical research involving human subjects should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons and under the supervision of a clinically competent medical person.  The responsibility for the human subject must always rest with a medically qualified person and never rest on the subject of the research, even though the subject has given his or her consent.
  4. Biomedical research involving human subjects cannot legitimately be carried out unless the importance of the objective is in proportion to the inherent risk to the subject.
  5. Every biomedical research project involving human subjects should be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks in comparison with the foreseeable benefits to the subjects or to others.  Concern for the interests of the subject must always prevail over the interests of science and society.
  6. The right of the research subject to safeguard his or her integrity must always be respected.  Every precaution should be taken to respect the privacy of the subject and to minimise the impact of the study on the personality of the subject.
  7. Physicians should abstain from engaging in research projects involving human subjects unless they are satisfied that the hazards involved are believed to be predictable.  Physicians should cease any investigation if the hazards are found to outweigh the potential benefits.
  8. In publication of the results of his or her research, the physician is obliged to preserve the accuracy of the results.  Reports of experimentation not in accordance with the principles laid down in this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.
  9. In any research on human beings, each potential subject must be adequately informed of the aims, methods, anticipated benefits and potential hazards of the study and the discomfort it may entail.  He or she should be informed that he or she is at liberty to abstain from participation in the study and that he or she is free to withdraw his or her consent to participation at any time. given informed consent, preferably in writing.
  10. When obtaining informed consent for the research project the physician should be particularly cautious if the subject is in a dependent relationship to him or her or may consent under duress.  In that case the informed consent should be obtained by a physician who is not engaged in the investigation and who is completely independent of this official relationship.
  11. In case of legal incompetence, informed consent should be obtained from the legal guardian in accordance with national legislation.  Where physical or mental incapacity makes it impossible to obtain informed consent, or when the subject is a minor, permission from the responsible relative replaces that of the subject in accordance with national legislation. Whenever the minor child is in fact able to give a consent, the minor's consent must be obtained in addition to the consent of the minor's legal guardian.
  12. The research protocol should always contain a statement of the ethical considerations involved and should indicate that the principles enunciated in the present Declaration are complied with.

II. Medical research combined with medical care (Clinical research)

  1. In the treatment of the sick person, the physician must be free to use a new diagnostic and therapeutic measure, if in his or her judgement it offers hope of saving life, re-establishing health or alleviating suffering.
  2. The potential benefits, hazards and discomfort of a new method should be weighed against the advantages of the best current diagnostic and therapeutic methods.
  3. In any medical study, every patient - including tose of a control group, if any - should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method.
  4. The refusal of the patient to participate in a study must never interfere with the physician-patient relationship.
  5. If the physician considers it essential not to obtain informed consent, the specific reasons for this proposal should be stated in the experimental protocol for transmission to the independent committee (I,2).
  6. The physician can combine medical research with professional care, the objective being the acquisition of new medical knowledge, only to the extent that medical research is justified by its potential diagnostic or therapeutic value for the patient.

III. Non-therapeutic biomedical research involving human subjects (Non-clinical biomedical research)

  1. In the purely scientific application of medical research carried out on a human being, it is the duty of the physician to remain the protector of the life and health of that person on whom biomedical research is being carried out.
  2. The subjects should be volunteers - either healthy persons or patients for whom the experimental design is not related to the patient's illness.
  3. The investigator or the investigating team should discontinue the research if in his/her or their judgement it may, if continued, be harmful to the individual.
  4. In research on man, the interest of science and society should never take precedence over considerations related to the wellbeing of the subject.